Zabbix Documentation 3.0

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manual:config:macros:usermacros

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manual:config:macros:usermacros [2015/05/05 07:57]
asaveljevs [Example 1] fixed net.tcp.service item key
manual:config:macros:usermacros [2018/08/09 07:26] (current)
martins-v autonumbering removal
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-==== User macros ====+==== User macros ====
  
 === Overview === === Overview ===
  
-For greater flexibility,​ Zabbix supports user macros, which can be defined on global, template and host level. These macros have a special syntax: **{$MACRO}**. ​+For greater flexibility,​ Zabbix supports user macros, which can be defined on global, template and host level. These macros have a special syntax: **{$MACRO}**. An optional context can be used in user macros, allowing to override default value with context specific one. User macros with context have a similar syntax: **{$MACRO:​context}**.
  
 The macros can be used in: The macros can be used in:
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 The following characters are allowed in the macro names: **A-Z** , **0-9** , **_** , **.** The following characters are allowed in the macro names: **A-Z** , **0-9** , **_** , **.**
  
-Zabbix ​substitutes ​macros according to the following precedence:+Zabbix ​resolves ​macros according to the following precedence:
  
   - host level macros (checked first)   - host level macros (checked first)
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 In other words, if a macro does not exist for a host, Zabbix will try to find it in the host templates of increasing depth. If still not found, a global macro will be used, if exists. In other words, if a macro does not exist for a host, Zabbix will try to find it in the host templates of increasing depth. If still not found, a global macro will be used, if exists.
  
-If Zabbix is unable to find a macro, the macro will not be substituted.+If Zabbix is unable to find a macro, the macro will not be resolved.
  
 To define user macros, go to the corresponding locations in the frontend: To define user macros, go to the corresponding locations in the frontend:
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   - global macros for global one-click configuration changes and fine tuning   - global macros for global one-click configuration changes and fine tuning
  
 +=== Macro context ===
 +
 +Macro context is a simple text value. The common use case for macro contexts would be using an [[:​manual/​discovery/​low_level_discovery#​using_lld_macros_in_user_macro_contexts|LLD macro value]] as a user macro context. For example, a trigger prototype could be defined for mounted file system discovery to use a different low space limit depending on the mount points or file system types.
 +
 +Only low-level discovery macros are supported in macro contexts. Any other macros are ignored and treated as plain text.
 +
 +Technically,​ macro context is specified using rules similar to [[manual:​config:​items:​item:​key|item key]] parameters, except macro context is not parsed as several parameters if there is a '',''​ character:
 +
 +  * Macro context must be quoted with ''<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>''​ if the context contains a ''​}''​ character or starts with a ''<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>''​ character. Quotes inside quoted context must be escaped with the ''​\''​ character. The ''​\''​ character itself is not escaped, which means it's impossible to have a quoted context ending with the ''​\''​ character - the macro ''​{$MACRO:<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​a:​\b\c\<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​}''​ is invalid.
 +  * The leading spaces in context are ignored, the trailing spaces are not. For example ''​{$MACRO:​A}''​ is the same as ''​{$MACRO:​ A}'',​ but not ''​{$MACRO:​A }''​.
 +  * All spaces before leading quotes and after trailing quotes are ignored, but all spaces inside quotes are not. Macros ''​{$MACRO:<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​A<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​}'',​ ''​{$MACRO:​ <​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​A<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​}'',​ ''​{$MACRO:<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​A<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​ }''​ and ''​{$MACRO:​ <​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​A<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​ }''​ are the same, but macros ''​{$MACRO:<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​A<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​}''​ and ''​{$MACRO:<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​ A <​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​}''​ are not.
 +
 +The following macros are all equivalent, because they have the same context: ''​{$MACRO:​A}'',​ ''​{$MACRO:​ A}''​ and ''​{$MACRO:<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​A<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​}''​. This is in contrast with item keys, where ''​key[a]'',​ ''​key[ a]''​ and ''​key[<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​a<​nowiki>"</​nowiki>​]''​ are the same semantically,​ but different for uniqueness purposes.
 +
 +When context macros are processed, Zabbix looks up the macro with its context. If a macro with this context is not defined by host or linked templates, and it is not a defined as a global macro with context, then the macro without context is searched for.
 === Examples === === Examples ===
  
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 Use of host-level macro in the "​Status of SSH daemon"​ item key: Use of host-level macro in the "​Status of SSH daemon"​ item key:
  
-**net.tcp.service[ssh,,​{$SSH_PORT}]**+''​net.tcp.service[ssh,,​{$SSH_PORT}]''​
  
 This item can be assigned to multiple hosts, providing that the value of **{$SSH_PORT}** is defined on those hosts. This item can be assigned to multiple hosts, providing that the value of **{$SSH_PORT}** is defined on those hosts.
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 Use of host-level macro in the "CPU load is too high" trigger: Use of host-level macro in the "CPU load is too high" trigger:
  
-**{ca_001:​system.cpu.load[,​avg1].last()}>​{$MAX_CPULOAD}**+''​{ca_001:​system.cpu.load[,​avg1].last()}>​{$MAX_CPULOAD}''​
  
 Such a trigger would be created on the template, not edited in individual hosts. Such a trigger would be created on the template, not edited in individual hosts.
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 Use of two macros in the "CPU load is too high" trigger: Use of two macros in the "CPU load is too high" trigger:
  
-**{ca_001:​system.cpu.load[,​avg1].min({$CPULOAD_PERIOD})}>​{$MAX_CPULOAD}**+''​{ca_001:​system.cpu.load[,​avg1].min({$CPULOAD_PERIOD})}>​{$MAX_CPULOAD}''​
  
 Note that a macro can be used as a parameter of trigger function, in this example function **min()**. Note that a macro can be used as a parameter of trigger function, in this example function **min()**.
  
-<note important>​In trigger expressions user macros will expand ​if referencing a parameter or constant. They will NOT expand ​if referencing the host, item key, function, operator or another trigger expression.</​note>​+<note important>​In trigger expressions user macros will resolve ​if referencing a parameter or constant. They will NOT resolve ​if referencing the host, item key, function, operator or another trigger expression.</​note>​ 
 + 
 +== Example 4 ==
  
 +See [[manual:​discovery:​low_level_discovery#​using_lld_macros_in_user_macro_contexts|usage example]] for disk space trigger prototype and take limitation clause into consideration. ​